Construction of the 5-storey building, which was designed by internationally renowned architects, Foster and Partners, began in The rooftop deck offers degree panoramic views of Victoria Harbour and includes two outdoor event spaces, one with grass lawn and an outdoor performance venue with person grandstand. The deck is open from 7am to midnight and admission is free. Since its establishment, Tung Lin Kok Yuen has played a significant religious and educational role in the Chinese community for its strong association with the early development of female education, and the development and teaching of modern Chinese Buddhism. Tung Lin Kok Yuen adopted Western structural forms, combined with traditional Chinese designs, details and decorations, such as flying eaves, brackets and glazed tile roofs. Internal decorative features, including aisle railings and wall and ceiling mouldings, are also in strong Chinese colours and design. With its arrowhead-shaped building plan, Tung Kin Kok Yuen’s appearance resembles a giant ship, symbolising one of Mahayana Buddhism’s concepts of ferrying all beings to the “other shore”, or in other words enlightenment itself. The building follows the traditional Chinese layout for a Buddhist monastery design, with halls in designated sequence. During the Japanese occupation, the church ceased to function and the building was converted into a horse stable by the Japanese army and suffered severe looting and damage. The church was opened again for public worship with a rededication service held on October 19, , and continues to serve the community to this day.
Reclaimed Granite Cobblestone Pavers
Thousands drive past on the nearby North Circular everyday not knowing there is this great building crumbling away so close by. The access is via Twyford Abbey Road where various security warning signs greet you at the entrance gates. Moving along the road you can make out the abandoned building in the distance across a stretch of overgrown lawns. I first spotted this building in and I had forgotten about it and when someone mentioned it recently I was surprised that the site hadnt been redeveloped so decided to take another look.
The manor house was partially demolished around and in the manor house a stagecoarch proprietor turned the house into a Gothic-style mansion with an extension around the original house infilled a genuine medieval moat and renamed it Twford Abbey and being the only building in the area, the name Twyford Abbey was applied to the whole of West Twyford.
Dating old brick and block is not a precise science, but there are a few things to look for. Bricks have been used for centuries to build homes and commercial structures. Bricks.
Historic Development,Decay, Conservation and Repair Gerard Lynch Previously considered to be an inferior material to stone, brick construction was rarely used in Britain until the close of the Middle Ages. Gerard Lynch looks at its historical development over the last years and its conservation and repair. This was a direct result of lack of local stone, an increasing shortage of good timber, and the influence of Europe where brickwork was used extensively.
By the Tudor period the brick-makers and bricklayers had emerged as separate craftsmen well able to rival the masons. From unsophisticated early work, brick building entered its heyday, rivalling stone in its popularity as a structural material. Bricks were generally made on site in wood, heather or turf fired clamps by itinerant workers.
Not only were standard bricks produced but also many in extravagant and elaborate shapes, epitomised by those that formed the spiral twisted chimney stacks for which the period is renown.
This category includes buildings on the Listed Buildings Database. The building does not have to be listed, it could be part of a conservation area or a local building of significant interest. The age or type of building does not matter as long as it is historic. All sizes of rescue projects are eligible, as it is the action taken to rescue them that will be judged. Anthony and Eleanor Damoglou Project: It is B listed and sits at a prominent location within the Moira Conservation Area.
Brickwork: Historic Development,Decay, Conservation and Repair Gerard Lynch Previously considered to be an inferior material to stone, brick construction was .
Bricks were first used 5, years ago and were made from dirt using straw as a binder. Later bricks were made from clay and fired in a kiln to increase their durability. The history of concrete blocks dates back to ancient Greece and Rome, although they were not manufactured commercially until the early 20th century. Dating old brick and block is not a precise science, but there are a few things to look for. Bricks have been used for centuries to build homes and commercial structures.
Bricks Step 1 Examine the surface of the brick. Old bricks were formed by hand, so look for irregularities in shape. They should be slightly uneven and may contain straw. These older hand-shaped bricks are larger than the bricks made today, although never larger than a hand width. Step 2 Look for an indentation on the brick’s surface. Older bricks do not have a dent in the middle, called a frog. Instead, older bricks only have a lip at the edge to hold the mortar in place between the bricks.
Step 3 Look for a manufacturer’s stamp on the brick’s surface.
Scarborough, North Riding of Yorkshire
When you ‘get your eye in’ you will find that different sized bricks, and especially bricks where the sides are in a different ratio, stand out and catch your eye, even before you resort to a ruler. Several things influenced the size of bricks. They mustn’t be too big, or they will be too heavy and awkward to pick up with one hand, while applying mortar with a trowel held in the other.
This is a guide to dating your period house. To do this, use a date mark, study the architectural feature, looks at street directory, and read the registers of electors.
This is a guide to dating your period house. To date your house, you can: By looking for the first reference to the building, perhaps even ‘Vacant’, you can prove that the house existed by that year. You can also use the register of electors. Beware of the compilation dates of each of these sources. The census records, currently available for , and previous decades can be used for an approximate date.
Another source of information may be the original owners of the land; this may have been, for example, a religious trust or a member of the nobility. This information may be on the deeds or referred to in a local history book. Buy now If this information is not available, or you just want an approximate date, unless there is a date mark on the house or a similar neighbour, you will have to resort to the style of the building.
Some houses have a recognisable style; they have clear Georgian, Gothic or Arts and Crafts features, for example. These will give you broad date ranges. But many buildings, particularly more modest houses, have an eclectic mix of features. These are dateable by looking at individual elements.
HARVEY NORMAN ARCHITECTS Cambridge
Mortar was originally mud smeared into the rising wall to lend stability and weather tight seal. Where stone lay readily at hand, it was preferred to bricks; where stone was unavailable, bricks were made from local clay and silts. Change came with the passing millennia. People learned to quarry, cut and hand chisel stone with increasing precision.
Dating buildings brickwork. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is roughly a thirty-fold increase in the energy instance, a magnitude earthquake releases approximately 30 times more energy than a magnitude earthquake, while a magnitude earthquake releases approximately times (30×30) more energy than a magnitude
Private building, Solna, Sweden. This bond has two stretchers between every header with the headers centred over the perpend between the two stretchers in the course below in the bond’s most symmetric form. A quoin brick may be a stretcher, a three-quarter bat, or a header. Queen closers may be used next to the quoins, but the practice is not mandatory. Raking monk bonds[ edit ] Monk bond may however take any of a number of arrangements for course staggering.
The disposal of bricks in these often highly irregular raking patterns can be a challenging task for the bricklayer to correctly maintain while constructing a wall whose courses are partially obscured by scaffold, and interrupted by door or window openings, or other bond-disrupting obstacles. If the bricklayer frequently stops to check that bricks are correctly arranged, then masonry in a raking monk bond can be expensive to build.
In spite of these complexities and their associated costs, the bond has proven a common choice for constructing brickwork in the north of Europe. Raking courses in monk bond may—for instance—be staggered in such a way as to generate the appearance of diagonal lines of stretchers. One method of achieving this effect relies on the use of a repeating sequence of courses with back-and-forth header staggering. In this grouping, a header appears at a given point in the group’s first course.
In the next course up, a header is offset one and a half stretcher lengths to the left of the header in the course below, and then in the third course, a header is offset one stretcher length to the right of the header in the middle course. This accented swing of headers, one and a half to the left, and one to the right, generates the appearance of lines of stretchers running from the upper left hand side of the wall down to the lower right.
Chicago Masonry Construction Company: Residential & Commercial Construction
Why is the indentation in a house brick called a frog? Ben Chaston, Hong Kong, China In the s the bricks were made by hand in slop moulds and the indent required a wooden former in the bottom of the mould box. This looked like a crouching frog and the name stuck despite its reference to the indent. Jack Hill, St Albans, UK My family used to leave bricks in the garden, indentation down, propped up, in order to provide safe havens for wildlife, possibly frogs. So maybe the name originates from the inhabitants.
Henry Lancashire, Dusseldorf, Germany Because it’s similar in shape to the indentation in a horse’s hoof also called a frog.
Dating historic buildings. Broadly speaking there are three methods of dating. Style: Buildings are often roughly datable by their the style section of this website for an introduction and bibliography, with pages and bibliographies on specific styles. Dating .
York’s Streets and Buildings Please note – the term ‘gate’ used in York street names like Walmgate, Coppergate, Stonegate and Skeldergate, derives from the Viking word ‘gata’ meaning street. The term should not be confused with the word gate meaning a gateway. The historic gateways to the city of York are called ‘Bars’.
The wall was later replaced by the medieval city wall which runs adjacent to the street. The interior of the Merchant Taylors’ Hall, just off Aldwark dates from around , although the brick exterior dates from and The charter merged the guilds of the drapers, hosiers and tailors. The hall is the only surviving hall of a craft guild in York. Trees now grow out of the mound. Bishophill Junior Bishophill was once part of the land owned by the Archbishop of York.
Researching Historic Buildings in the British Isles
Navigation About Us Coalition Restaurant combines an inspired menu with a casually sophisticated setting in a historic downtown Excelsior main street building. Coalition is the creation of Chef Eli Wollenzien and reflects his passion for cooking with a diverse and inspired menu. The menu takes its inspiration from classic American dishes like beef, lamb, pork and walleye, creatively prepared, vibrantly presented, and influenced by cuisines around the world reflecting the global, sophisticated, expanded palates of today.
The restaurant is located in a historic Excelsior brick building dating from Creating a sense of the natural evolution of the building was a goal of the designer, Kara Karpenske of Kamarron Design, Inc.
century to be accurate so this method of dating works well for earlier buildings. Typical eighteenth century house floor plan. This plan began as a hall and parlor, and then evolved over time. Houses became bigger and more complex as technology evolved.
Chemical cleaning to remove dirt from granite. Protecting and maintaining masonry by providing proper drainage so that water does not stand on flat, horizontal surfaces or accumulate in curved decorative features. Cleaning masonry only when necessary to halt deterioration or remove heavy soiling. Carrying out masonry surface cleaning tests after it has been determined that such cleaning is appropriate. Tests should be observed over a sufficient period of time so that both the immediate and the long range effects are known to enable selection of the gentlest method possible.
Removing felt-tipped marker graffiti with poultice. Cleaning masonry surfaces with the gentlest method possible, such as low pressure water and detergents, using natural bristle brushes. Inspecting painted masonry surfaces to determine whether repainting is necessary. Removing damaged or deteriorated paint only to the next sound layer using the gentlest method possible e. Applying compatible paint coating systems following proper surface preparation.
York’s Streets and Buildings
Dating historic buildings Broadly speaking there are three methods of dating. Buildings are often roughly datable by their style. See the style section of this website for an introduction and bibliography, with pages and bibliographies on specific styles. Dating by style depends on having a corpus of firmly dated examples. How are these firmly dated?
Dating vernacular buildings Men looking for many to the main influences on having a jane austen novel and repair of interior is a real estate.
When repairing this stone wall, the mason matched the raised profile of the original tuckpointing. Mortars for repointing should be softer or more permeable than the masonry units and no harder or more impermeable than the historic mortar to prevent damage to the masonry units. It is a common error to assume that hardness or high strength is a measure of appropriateness, particularly for lime-based historic mortars. Stresses within a wall caused by expansion, contraction, moisture migration, or settlement must be accommodated in some manner; in a masonry wall, these stresses should be relieved by the mortar rather than by the masonry units.
A mortar that is stronger in compressive strength than the masonry units will not “give,” thus causing stresses to be relieved through the masonry units–resulting in permanent damage to the masonry, such as cracking and spalling, that cannot be repaired easily. While stresses can also break the bond between the mortar and the masonry units, permitting water to penetrate the resulting hairline cracks, this is easier to correct in the joint through repointing than if the break occurs in the masonry units.
Permeability, or rate of vapor transmission, is also critical. High lime mortars are more permeable than denser cement mortars. Historically, mortar acted as a bedding material–not unlike an expansion joint–rather than a “glue” for the masonry units, and moisture was able to migrate through the mortar joints rather than the masonry units.